Getting “whole_day” data on the teaser block

While selecting Event to be the target of the Teaser block, “whole_day” is not part of the href dataset.

I have tried to follow schema from this example but without results.

How can I add "whole_day" data to teaser block?

A post like this will get you little to no help.
" I have tried to follow schema from this example but without results."
What does this mean you've tried?
Where did you hit the road block?
If you want some help you have to try things and to post a link on github to the file where you've added your schema customization and your shadowed Teaser View component to display the event whole_date data.

As it is I am going to give you one way of getting your content visible:
0. If you need to have a boolean if to show event day shadow volto/packages/volto/src/components/manage/Blocks/Teaser/schema.js at main · plone/volto · GitHub

  1. Shadow volto/packages/volto/src/components/manage/Blocks/Teaser/DefaultBody.jsx at main · plone/volto · GitHub and see if props has content data
  2. Insert the whole_day where you want it to show up, see volto/packages/volto/src/components/theme/EventDetails/EventDetails.jsx at main · plone/volto · GitHub

You could do this with schema extenders, with variations but given your level this would probably be the easiest first step to try to get what you want.